سه شنبه 23 بهمن 1386  05:02 ق.ظ    ویرایش: - -
نوع مطلب: فلسفه ،

نویسنده ی این جزوه ی انتقادی «گ. و. پلخانف» یکی از فلاسفه و جامعه شناسان مشهور روسی است.

پلخانف در سال 1856 متولد شده و در سال 1918 فوت نمود. پلخانف اولین کسی است که در روسیه به نشر و تبلیغ عقاید مارکسیستی و دفاع از آنها اقدام نمود. در تألیفات اصلی و مهمی مانند «سوسیالیسم و مبارزه ی سیاسی» یا «اختلاف نظرهای ما» یا « در باره ی تحول مفهوم مونیستی تاریخ» همه جا پلخانف به طرز درخشانی نظریات غلط«نارودنیک» های روس را مورد انتقاد قرار داده است.

این آقایان نارودنیک ها تصور می کردند که کاپیتالیسم در روسیه یک نمود اتفاقی است و ماهیت روسیه با کاپیتالیسم تطبیق نمی کند و از این رو پرولتاریا در روسیه رشد و نمو نخواهد کرد. این آقایان در خواب خویش تصور می کردند که سوسیالیسم را بدون پرولتاریا به دست خواهند آورد. زیرا آنها خیال می کردند که طبقه ی دهقان تحت رهبری روشنفکران تنها نیروی انقلابی مؤثر را به وجود می آورد و محیط کوچک دهِ روسی به عنوان پایه و اساس سوسیالیسم بکار خواهد رفت.

اگرچه پلخانف این نظریات نارودنیک ها را بوسیله ی استدلالات مکتب مارکسیستی درهم شکست ولی معذالک خود او نتوانست به این مطلب پی ببرد که برای درهم شکستن سرمایه داری و مبارزه در شرایط تازه ی دوره ی امپریالیسم و به انجام رساندن انقلاب پرولتاریائی لازم بود یک حزب سیاسی نوینی که با شرایط موجود وفق دهد به وجود آید. پلخانف مقابل مسائل دوره ی جدید مبارزه ی اجتماعی قدرت کافی نشان نداد و پس از سال 1905 یعنی پس از آنکه حزب کارگری سوسیال دموکرات روسیه به دو دسته ی بلشویک و منشویک تقسیم شد، پلخانف متوجه ی منشویکها شد و در گل و لای منشویسم و سازشکاری فرو رفت و نظریاتی مانند نظریات بین الملل دوم را که مختص به منشویکها بود تبلیغ نمود.

ولی با این همه ارزش کارهای قبلی پلخانف بهیچوجه از بین نمی رود. لنین در باره ی پلخانف چنین نوشته است:

«خدمات شخصی پلخانف در گذشته فوق العاده است.»

در دوره ی بیست ساله ی 1883 تا 1903 پلخانف کتب عالی متعددی نوشته است. در حقیقت کتاب هائی مانند « در باره ی مفهوم مونیستی تاریخ» و « تاریخ از نظر فلسفه ی مادی» و «نقش شخصیت در تاریخ» امروز هم اهمیت و ارزش خود را حفظ می نماید. 

   


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